Spring Boot原理分析

之前Spring Boot快速入门文章中,我们已经体会到Spring Boot的神器,不再像之前Spring那样需要繁琐的XML,甚至几秒钟就能搭建出Spring的项目骨架。接下来我们简单分析Spring Boot的基本原理,让我们揭开它神秘的面纱吧。

1 @SpringBootApplication

首先,我从引导类开始

/**
 * Spring Boot引导类
 * 一点教程网 - www.yiidian.com
 */
@SpringBootApplication
public class MyBootApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(MyBootApplication.class,args);
    }

}

引导类代码很简单,但可以看出最关键的是@SpringBootApplication注解以及在main方法中运行的SpringAppliation.run()了,我们进去@SpringBootApplication的源码:

@Target({ElementType.TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Inherited
@SpringBootConfiguration
@EnableAutoConfiguration
@ComponentScan(
    excludeFilters = {@Filter(
    type = FilterType.CUSTOM,
    classes = {TypeExcludeFilter.class}
), @Filter(
    type = FilterType.CUSTOM,
    classes = {AutoConfigurationExcludeFilter.class}
)}
)
public @interface SpringBootApplication {
  ......
}

我们看到@SpringBootApplication其实是一个复合的注解,它就是由@SpringBootConfiguration@EnableAutoConfiguration以及@ComponentScan 三个注解组成,所以如果我们把SpringBoot启动类改写成如下方式,整个SpringBoot应用依然可以与之前的启动类功能一样:

@SpringBootConfiguration
@EnableAutoConfiguration
@ComponentScan(excludeFilters = {
        @Filter(type = FilterType.CUSTOM, classes = TypeExcludeFilter.class),
        @Filter(type = FilterType.CUSTOM, classes = AutoConfigurationExcludeFilter.class) })
public class SpringbootDemoApplication {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(SpringbootDemoApplication.class, args);
    }
}

因为我们每次新建项目时都要写上三个注解来完成配置,这显然太繁琐了,SpringBoot就为我们提供了@SpringBootApplication这样注解来简化我们的操作。接着,我们重点分析这三个注解的作用。

2 @SpringBootConfiguration

我们来看@SpringBootConfiguration注解的源码:

@Target({ElementType.TYPE})
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Configuration
public @interface SpringBootConfiguration {
}

我们可以看到,SpringBoot为了区别@Configuration而新提供的专属于SpringBoot的注解,功能其实和@Configuration一模一样。而这里的@Configuration注解对于我们来说并不陌生,它就是是个IoC容器的配置类。看到这里,我们其实可以把SpringBoot的启动类这样来看就清楚了:

@Configuration
@EnableAutoConfiguration
@ComponentScan
public class SpringbootDemoApplication {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(SpringbootDemoApplication.class, args);
    }
}

启动类SpringbootDemoApplication其实就是一个标准的Spring纯注解下的启动类,也并没有什么特殊。

3 @EnableAutoConfiguration

看到这个注解,我们不禁联想出Spring 中很多以“@Enable”开头的注解,比如:@EnableScheduling、@EnableCaching以及@EnableMBeanExport等,@EnableAutoConfiguration注解的理念和工作原理和它们其实一脉相承。简单的来说,就是该注解借助@Import注解的支持,Spring的IoC容器收集和注册特定场景相关的Bean定义:

  • @EnableScheduling是通过@Import将Spring调度框架相关的bean都加载到IoC容器。
  • @EnableMBeanExport是通过@Import将JMX相关的bean定义加载到IoC容器。

而@EnableAutoConfiguration注解也是借助@Import将所有复合配置条件的bean定义加载到IoC容器,仅此而已!@EnableAutoConfiguration注解的源码如下:

@Target(ElementType.TYPE)
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Documented
@Inherited
@AutoConfigurationPackage
@Import(EnableAutoConfigurationImportSelector.class)
public @interface EnableAutoConfiguration {
    ...
}

这其中最关键的就是@Import(EnableAutoConfigurationImportSelector.class)了,它借助EnableAutoConfigurationImportSelector.class可以帮助SpringBoot应用将所有符合条件的@Configuration配置类都加载到当前SpringBoot创建并使用的IoC容器,就像下图一样。

下面我们给出EnableAutoConfigurationImportSelector.java的父类AutoConfigurationImportSelector.java的部分源码,来解释和验证上图:

public class AutoConfigurationImportSelector
        implements DeferredImportSelector, BeanClassLoaderAware, ResourceLoaderAware,
BeanFactoryAware, EnvironmentAware, Ordered {
    protected List<AutoConfigurationImportFilter> getAutoConfigurationImportFilters() {
        return SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactories(AutoConfigurationImportFilter.class,
                this.beanClassLoader);
    }
    protected List<AutoConfigurationImportListener> getAutoConfigurationImportListeners() {
        return SpringFactoriesLoader.loadFactories(AutoConfigurationImportListener.class,
                this.beanClassLoader);
    }
}

以上源码可以看出,@EnableAutoConfiguration正是借助SpringFactoriesLoader的支持,才能完成所有配置类的加载!

4 SpringFactoriesLoader

SpringFactoriesLoader属于Spring框架专属的一种扩展方案(其功能和使用方式类似于Java的SPI方案:java.util.ServiceLoader),它的主要功能就是从指定的配置文件META-INF/spring.factories中加载配置,spring.factories是一个非常经典的java properties文件,内容格式是Key=Value形式,只不过这Key以及Value都非常特殊,为Java类的完整类名(Fully Qualified Name),比如:

org.springframework.context.ApplicationListener=org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.BackgroundPreinitializer

然后Spring框架就可以根据某个类型作为Key来查找对应的类型名称列表了,SpringFactories源码如下:

public abstract class SpringFactoriesLoader {

    private static final Log logger = LogFactory.getLog(SpringFactoriesLoader.class);

    public static final String FACTORIES_RESOURCE_LOCATION = "META-INF/spring.factories";

    public static <T> List<T> loadFactories(Class<T> factoryClass, ClassLoader classLoader){
        ...
    }

    public static List<String> loadFactoryNames(Class<?> factoryClass, ClassLoader classLoader) {
        ...
    }
    // ...
}

对于@EnableAutoConfiguraion来说,SpringFactoriesLoader的用途和其本意稍微不同,它本意是为了提供SPI扩展,而在@EnableAutoConfiguration这个场景下,它更多的是提供了一种配置查找的功能的支持,也就是根据@EnableAutoConfiguration的完整类名org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration作为Key来获取一组对应的@Configuration类:

# Auto Configure
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration=\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.admin.SpringApplicationAdminJmxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.aop.AopAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.amqp.RabbitAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.batch.BatchAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cache.CacheAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cassandra.CassandraAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.cloud.CloudServiceConnectorsAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.ConfigurationPropertiesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.MessageSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.context.PropertyPlaceholderAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.couchbase.CouchbaseAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.dao.PersistenceExceptionTranslationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.cassandra.CassandraRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.couchbase.CouchbaseRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.elasticsearch.ElasticsearchRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jdbc.JdbcRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.jpa.JpaRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.ldap.LdapRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoReactiveDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoReactiveRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.mongo.MongoRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jDataAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.neo4j.Neo4jRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.solr.SolrRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.redis.RedisRepositoriesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.rest.RepositoryRestMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.data.web.SpringDataWebAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.elasticsearch.jest.JestAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.elasticsearch.rest.RestClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.flyway.FlywayAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.freemarker.FreeMarkerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.gson.GsonAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.h2.H2ConsoleAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hateoas.HypermediaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.hazelcast.HazelcastJpaDependencyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.HttpMessageConvertersAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.http.codec.CodecsAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.influx.InfluxDbAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.info.ProjectInfoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.integration.IntegrationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jackson.JacksonAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JdbcTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.JndiDataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.XADataSourceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jdbc.DataSourceTransactionManagerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JmsAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jmx.JmxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.JndiConnectionFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.activemq.ActiveMQAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.artemis.ArtemisAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.groovy.template.GroovyTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jersey.JerseyAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jooq.JooqAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jsonb.JsonbAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.kafka.KafkaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.embedded.EmbeddedLdapAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.ldap.LdapAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.liquibase.LiquibaseAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mail.MailSenderValidatorAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.embedded.EmbeddedMongoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mongo.MongoReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.mustache.MustacheAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.orm.jpa.HibernateJpaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.quartz.QuartzAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.reactor.core.ReactorCoreAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.SecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.UserDetailsServiceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.servlet.SecurityFilterAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.reactive.ReactiveSecurityAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.reactive.ReactiveUserDetailsServiceAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.sendgrid.SendGridAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.session.SessionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.client.servlet.OAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.client.reactive.ReactiveOAuth2ClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.resource.servlet.OAuth2ResourceServerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.security.oauth2.resource.reactive.ReactiveOAuth2ResourceServerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.solr.SolrAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.task.TaskExecutionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.task.TaskSchedulingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.thymeleaf.ThymeleafAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.TransactionAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.transaction.jta.JtaAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.validation.ValidationAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.client.RestTemplateAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.embedded.EmbeddedWebServerFactoryCustomizerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.HttpHandlerAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.ReactiveWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.WebFluxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.error.ErrorWebFluxAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.ClientHttpConnectorAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.reactive.function.client.WebClientAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.ServletWebServerFactoryAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.HttpEncodingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.MultipartAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.WebMvcAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.reactive.WebSocketReactiveAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.servlet.WebSocketServletAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.websocket.servlet.WebSocketMessagingAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.WebServicesAutoConfiguration,\
org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.webservices.client.WebServiceTemplateAutoConfiguration

在SpringBoot的autoconfigure依赖包中的META-INF文件下的spring.factories文件中,我们可以找到以上内容。

总结来说,@EnableAutoConfiguration能实现自动配置的原理就是:SpringFactoriesLoader从classpath中搜寻所有META-INF/spring.fatories文件,并将其中Key[org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration]对应的Value配置项通过反射的方式实例化为对应的标注了@Configuration的JavaConfig形式的IoC容器配置类,然后汇总到当前使用的IoC容器中。

5 @ComponentScan

@ComponentScan注解在Spring Boot启动的时候其实不是必需的!因为我们知道作为Spring框架里的老成员,@ComponentScan的功能就是自动扫描并加载复合条件的组件或Bean定义,最终将这些Bean定义加载到当前使用的容器中。这个过程,我们可以手工单个进行注册,不是一定要通过这个注解批量扫描和注册,所以说@ComponentScan是非必需的。

所以,如果我们当前应用没有任何Bean定义需要通过@ComponentScan加载到当前SpringBoot应用对应的IoC容器,那么,去掉@ComponentScan注解,当前的SpringBoot应用依旧可以完美运行!