HttpClient 代理身份认证

在本章中,我们将学习如何创建一个使用用户名和密码进行身份验证的 HttpRequest,并使用一个示例将其通过代理隧道传输到目标主机。

1)创建一个 CredentialsProvider 对象

CredentialsProvider 接口维护一个集合来保存用户登录凭据。您可以通过实例化 BasicCredentialsProvider 类(此接口的默认实现)来创建其对象。

CredentialsProvider credentialsPovider = new BasicCredentialsProvider();

2)设置凭证

您可以使用setCredentials()方法为 CredentialsProvider 对象设置所需的凭据。此方法接受两个对象 -

  • AuthScope 对象: 指定详细信息的身份验证范围,如主机名、端口号和身份验证方案名称。

  • Credentials对象: 指定凭据(用户名、密码)。使用setCredentials()方法为主机和代理设置凭据,如下所示。

credsProvider.setCredentials(new AuthScope("example.com", 80), new
   UsernamePasswordCredentials("user", "mypass"));
credsProvider.setCredentials(new AuthScope("localhost", 8000), new
   UsernamePasswordCredentials("abc", "passwd"));

3)创建一个 HttpClientBuilder 对象

使用HttpClients类的custom()方法创建一个HttpClientBuilder,如下所示

//Creating the HttpClientBuilder
HttpClientBuilder clientbuilder = HttpClients.custom();

4)设置 CredentialsProvider

您可以使用setDefaultCredentialsProvider()方法将 CredentialsProvider 对象设置为 HttpClientBuilder 对象。将先前创建的CredentialsProvider对象传递给此方法。

clientbuilder = clientbuilder.setDefaultCredentialsProvider(credsProvider);

5)构建 CloseableHttpClient

使用build()方法构建CloseableHttpClient对象。

CloseableHttpClient httpclient = clientbuilder.build();

6)创建代理和目标主机

通过实例化HttpHost类来创建目标主机和代理主机。

//Creating the target and proxy hosts
HttpHost target = new HttpHost("example.com", 80, "http");
HttpHost proxy = new HttpHost("localhost", 8000, "http");

7)设置代理并构建 RequestConfig 对象

使用custom()方法创建一个RequestConfig.Builder对象。设置先前创建的ProxyHost对象到RequestConfig.Builder使用setProxy()方法。最后,使用build()方法构建RequestConfig对象。

RequestConfig.Builder reqconfigconbuilder= RequestConfig.custom();
reqconfigconbuilder = reqconfigconbuilder.setProxy(proxyHost);
RequestConfig config = reqconfigconbuilder.build();

8)创建一个 HttpGet 请求对象并设置配置对象

通过实例化 HttpGet 类来创建一个HttpGet对象。使用setConfig()方法将上一步中创建的配置对象设置为此对象。

//Create the HttpGet request object
HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet("/");

//Setting the config to the request
httpget.setConfig(config);

9)执行请求

通过将 HttpHost 对象(目标)和请求(HttpGet)作为参数传递给execute()方法来执行请求。

HttpResponse httpResponse = httpclient.execute(targetHost, httpget);

HttpClient 代理身份认证的完整例子

以下示例演示如何使用用户名和密码通过代理执行 HTTP 请求。

package com.yiidian;

import org.apache.http.HttpHost;
import org.apache.http.HttpResponse;
import org.apache.http.auth.AuthScope;
import org.apache.http.auth.UsernamePasswordCredentials;
import org.apache.http.client.CredentialsProvider;
import org.apache.http.client.config.RequestConfig;
import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.BasicCredentialsProvider;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClientBuilder;
import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClients;

public class ProxyAuthenticationExample {
   public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {

      //Creating the CredentialsProvider object
      CredentialsProvider credsProvider = new BasicCredentialsProvider();

      //Setting the credentials
      credsProvider.setCredentials(new AuthScope("yiidian.com", 80),
         new UsernamePasswordCredentials("user", "mypass"));
      credsProvider.setCredentials(new AuthScope("localhost", 8000), 
         new UsernamePasswordCredentials("abc", "passwd"));

      //Creating the HttpClientBuilder
      HttpClientBuilder clientbuilder = HttpClients.custom();

      //Setting the credentials
      clientbuilder = clientbuilder.setDefaultCredentialsProvider(credsProvider);
      
      //Building the CloseableHttpClient object
      CloseableHttpClient httpclient = clientbuilder.build();


      //Create the target and proxy hosts
      HttpHost targetHost = new HttpHost("yiidian.com", 80, "http");
      HttpHost proxyHost = new HttpHost("localhost", 8000, "http");

      //Setting the proxy
      RequestConfig.Builder reqconfigconbuilder= RequestConfig.custom();
      reqconfigconbuilder = reqconfigconbuilder.setProxy(proxyHost);
      RequestConfig config = reqconfigconbuilder.build();

      //Create the HttpGet request object
      HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet("/");

      //Setting the config to the request
      httpget.setConfig(config);
 
      //Printing the status line
      HttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(targetHost, httpget);
      System.out.println(response.getStatusLine());

   }
}

输出结果为:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK

 

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